Turning is a machining process used to make cylindrical parts, where the cutting tool moves in a linear fashion while the workpiece rotates. Commonly performed with a lathe, turning reduces the diameter of a workpiece, typically to a specified dimension, and produces a smooth part finish. A turning center is a lathe with a computer numerical control. Sophisticated turning centers can also perform a variety of milling and drilling operations.
Vertical Machining, also known as milling, relies on rotary cutters to remove metal from a workpiece. Vertical machining occurs on a vertical machining center (VMC), which employs a spindle with a vertical orientation. With a vertically oriented spindle, tools stick straight down from the tool holder, and often cut across the top of a workpiece.
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5-axis machining provides infinite possibilities as to the part sizes and shapes you can effectively process. The term “5-axis” refers to the number of directions in which the cutting tool can move. On a 5-axis machining center, the cutting tool moves across the X, Y and Z linear axes as well as rotates on the A and B axes to approach the workpiece from any direction. In other words, you can process five sides of a part in a single setup.